PROJECT TITLE: Agro – Silvopastoral project for climate change mitigation and combating land degradation for smallholder farmers/ Mbororo pastoralist Fulanis

The town of Balikumbat is located approximately 15km West of Ndop, the capital of the Ngoketunjia division within the North West region of Cameroon (located at latitude 50551011N, longitude 100221011E and elevation 1199m).

It is bounded on the East by the villages of Bamali and Bambalang; on the West of Bafanji; on the South by Bamumkumbit and on the North by Babanki, Tungo and Awing. Balikumbat has an estimated population of 65,000 inhabitants, which are predominantly peasant farmers.

There is a notable presence of Mbororos herdsmen occupying the hill where they tend their cattle.

The populations of this area are predominantly young females, significantly overshadowing the male population. Balikumbat has neighboring villages, which are Balikumbat, Bafanji, Bamumkumbit Baligashu and Baligasin. With the effects of climate change in Balikumbat, the support of the GEF small grant program (including CAEPA), has introduced a means in which climate change can be mitigated and combat land degradation for smallholders farmers and Mbororo pastoralist Fulanis.

The goal and objective of this project is to improve the livelihood for small farmers coping with current climate change variability. This is achieved by implementing long-term climate change strategies through the increase use and intensification of tree planting and the diversification and buffering farming system in Balikumbat. Furthermore, CAEPA has established community awareness and conservation education programs in Mbororo pastoralist settlements, schools and communities to promote local community involvement and reduce the vulnerability to climate change. This was achieved through the mapping of transhumance areas; improved pasture plots within Balikumbat Sub Division.


The activities planned has resulted to the indicators and output project such as:

  • Project launching and participatory planning in which traditional authorities shall provide lands for farming groups.
  • Baseline scans on household demographics crop productivity, farm constraints, uses of trees, food security and prospective on climate change, observation of household amenities, soil type, and soil erosion and number of trees planted for each household.
  • The creation, organization and restructuring of environmental clubs in schools and Fulani community groups and communities in Balikumbat.
  • Sensitization on climate change and land degradation in school environmental clubs and smallholder farmers and common initiative groups.
  • The demonstration of tree planting to students
  • Training workshop on nursery creation, which taught small farmers especially on which kind of tree to plant.
  • Creation of community nurseries created in Balikumbat, Baligashu and Bamumkumbit.
  • Celebration of World Environmental Day in which government officials takes part in the tree planting exercise at the premises of the council at the sub divisional hospital.
  • Workshops for smallholder farmers on agro forestry techniques
  • Integrating trees into farming systems for mitigating climate change on improving soil quality whereby 3251 trees of 4 species have been planted covering 24 hectares of degraded land.
  • Monitoring trees in farming systems where dead trees, which had been planted, were replaced.
  • Setting of demonstration plots on agro forestry system spatial arrangement of trees in agro forestry system such as rotational fallow, boundary planting wind breaks amongst others as ameans to mitigate climate change.
  • Training on fruit tree demystifications with the grafting of trees.
  • Women sustainable development fund.
  • Training on the production and the use of improved cooking stoves.
  • Participatory mapping of transhumance zones in Balikumbat Sub Division.
  • Restitution of mapping works within communities in Balikumbat, Baligansin and Bamumkumbit.
  • Creation of improved pastures plots within the five communities.
  • Project management and coordination, monitoring, evaluation and communication.
  • Evaluations of smallholder farmers/Mbororo pastoralist Fulanis groups were interviewed using questionnaires.
  • Project sites and monitoring visitsin which questions and answer sessions were held whereby the worries of the members were clarified.
  • Training on GEF SGP technical and financial reporting in Yaoundé and their skills improved and supported by CAEPA.
  • Production of sign boards at project sites and prepares, produce a case study of project reports and findings.
  • Press conference held to publicize report held by 15 persons from the administration, technical government services and other environmental organization, farmers, grazers and students.


The main challenges that were faced when implementing the project included:

  • The organized groups were largely concerned about the political life of the country and the support within the subdivisions in particular
  • Interruption of sensitization
  • Lack of education within the farming community
  • The presence of white ants feeding on young shoots of trees, thus killing the tree
  • Bush fires
  • Farmer grazer conflicts
  • Stray animals
  • Lack of commitment to repay loans by some women

To overcome these challenges, CAEPA proposed dates to successfully conduct a meeting. This meeting passed through information and knowledge through the workshops. The use of Mocab was implemented to prevent the white ants from eating up the young shoots of the replaced trees. Furthermore, measurable changes has since been taken in local incomes and job opportunities such as the change in average household income, job creation, revenues, livelihood diversification, market diversification amongst others.


Women were at the center of the project and cooperatives society. They served as the grassroots center to manage the project, particularly the Women Sustainable Development Fund (WSDF). Women actively engaged in the project such as:

  • 20 women were involved during the project launch
  • 234 women and 27 girls were interviewed on their knowledge of climate change
  • 522 women and 225 girls were sensitized on climate change
  • 48 women took part during the nursery creation
  • 80 women and 19 girls took part in the World Environmental Day activities
  • 15 women and 5 girls trained on the fruit tree
  • 40women trained on improved clay stoves
  • 40women have benefitted from micro loans

Actions taken by the SGP to overcome gender barriers and achieving SGP project goals emerged from the idea of a WSDF. The WSDF was a strategy to encourage women to get involved and reap the benefits from the project. In order to reduce green house effects, the project sponsored and supported the training of women using clay-cooking stoves.


The project was designed to function through a participatory manner. CAEPA would implement project planning to enable the local communities to continue the projects after the funding and that the main beneficiaries were the Mbororo pastoralists Fulani.

Furthermore, this project was implemented by the sub-delegate of MINEPIA to follow up grassroots assistance during transhumance periods, support farming groups through technical support during challenging times, the provision of land to carry out demonstrations by traditional authorities and school principals to design the surrounding environment and the project.


The sustainability components that were involved within this project include:

  • Training
  • Human resources
  • Financial resources
  • Capacity building
  • Community participation
  • Raising awareness
  • Organizational support for cooperative society groups to combat land degradation and the mitigation of global climate change effects
    • Funding for agricultural projects
    • Integration of tree information and farming systems

In addition to this, the cooperative created project should be strengthened in terms of capacity building and funding to support more farming groups willing to introduce agro-forestry techniques as an option to combat land degradation.


There were many lessons learnt during this project such as:

  • The Bakukumbat subdivision is an inter-tribal land conflict and political hotspot
  • Farmer grazer conflict is persistent as climate change has altered not only the cropping cycle but also an increase in pests and diseases within the area
  • Changing the behavior is a massive challenge since poverty has left rural dwellers with no option but to search for rapid/ convenient solutions to their immediate needs
  • Land dispute issues are also an experience of the Balkumabat subdivision
  • Some Transhumance zones have become permanently settled by grass
  • Trees, especially the royal palm, are mostly attached with termites, however, Mocab has ensured the survival of the plants
  • The demand of condoms by bike riders was high, essential to reduce the spread of the sexually-transmitted viruses within the subdivision
  • Improved cooking stoves provides a way to significantly diminish the quantity of wood needed to prepare a meal
  • Community members only adapt to this new technology and techniques once they see immediate monetary value
  • Chieftancy struggles among Mbororos in Balikumbat


  • CAEPA and partners should advocate for the implementation of the prime ministerial Decree No 2010/0244pm of February 2010 to lay down the condition for the transfer of powers by the state council relating to the promotion of pastoral fish production activities
  • More access to funds to support women and community groups
  • Expand nurseries with more trees especially hardwood that can store carbon for long
  • Encourage the conservation of traditional shrines in the mist of forest
  • Follow up to collect and distribute seeds to other grazers
  • Encourage the development of improved pastures by pastoralist communities
  • Agro pastoral commission should meet regularly to solve farmer/grazers conflict
  • Project should target all 5 communities effectively to support youth employment through second generation intensify sensitization on HIV/AIDS. etc 


Some women who had benefited from the organization gave testimonies. Some of which include:

  • Ma Eli is a palm oil businesswoman for the past 3 years. Ma Eli is a widow with children and although the business has been difficult, she obtained a loan from this organization. Ma Eli claims that she was able to produce 3-5L of oil a week, but now has been able to increase this to 10-15L p/ week. This has raised her capital for business and capacity to send her children to school. She is almost through her reimbursement and can continue her business at a small scale due to her responsibilities.
  • Ma Solange owns a tailoring business. Ma Solange’s machine had broken and as she did not have another machine, her primary source of income and livelihood of her business was at risk. With the loan, Ma Solange bought a new machine, which ensures her continued primary source of income.
  • Other testimonies include Tonji Mirabel a storeowner, two women into fish business and Kuluh Corbertine who have all benefited from the loans enhancing their business successes.


Conducting Water Catchment Sensitization to Communities

In October 2012, the Community Agriculture and Environmental Protection Association (CAEPA Cameroon) carried out sensitization to community members in religious houses, religious groups, socio-cultural associations, hospitals and sporting activities. These sensitizations were conducted to educate the communities of Balkumbat, Bali Gashu and Bali Gansinabout the importance of protecting water catchment areas.

These sensitization sessions were supported with 1,500 posters (500 posters per community) distributed within the communities to reinforce group sensitization and provide the public with materials to read and share information about water catchment protection.

The Field Staff team reported approximately 16,500 community members (farmers and grazers) that received these community messages to sustain the interest towards the protection of water catchments. Furthermore, this program created a local community network for water catchment protectors’ and local water governance committees that will continue to press for improvement in the management of different catchments.

In addition to this, a better understanding has been developed on the concept and practice of water catchment protection across the sensitized communities by the field staff and is reflected during interviews carried out during monitoring to evaluate yearly round supply of portable drinking water as well as in other aspects of their community life.

Visiting Balkumbat, Bali Gashu and Bali Gansin

CAEPA Cameroon in collaboration with the Balikumbat council and the traditional councils of Balikumbat, Bali Gashu and Bali Gansin visited the different water catchment sites for demarcation.

In Balkumbat – farmers were carrying out the cultivation of vegetables and tomatoes in the catchment areas since it’s wet all year round. In Bali Gashu – there was acute deforestation for the use of wood for fuel. In Bali Gansin – community members had already planted their crops within the area, resulting in the traditional council of Bali Gansin to put an injunction on the piece of land prohibiting farming and grazing activities.

Creation and Management of Tree Nurseries

In each community, tree nurseries were created with a total of 20,000 trees being transplanted in each catchment area. The traditional rulers of the different communities sent out a town crier with the traditional gung to announce the date for planting trees. The tree planting exercise took place on the 22nd of May in Bali Gansin, 28th of May in Bali Gashu and 1st of June in Balikumbat.

Problems Identified

On the 28th of April, a base line scan was carried out in collaboration with CAEPA Cameroon and a GPS Consultant. In the raining season, there was always an abundance of water. However, during the dry season, community members would go for days without drinking water and would have to resort to small wells dug in raffia bushes for drinking water.

In the Balkumbat district Hospital, there were 801 persons who were consulted at the hospital with 50 suffering from water borne diseases during the dry season. This is due to the transhumance by the Mbororo Fulani Pastoralists. In addition to this, other diseases such as typhoid and sleeping sickness were rampant because of the Tse-Tse fly.


  • Land ownership

Bali Gangsin and Bali Gashu– Several community members from Bali Gangsin and Bali Gashuclaimed that they cultivated these lands for years and that nobody could evict their activities from this land. The traditional council of Bali Gangsin and Bali Gashu put an injunction in these lands and farming and grazing activities were prohibited.

Balkumbat – In regards to Balikumbat, these challenges were different as the land ownership issues were between the Mayor and the Fon (Chiefan). The Fon wanted community members to exploit these areas as a challenge to the Mayor and to represent that the Fon is the traditional custodian of the land. In response to this, the administration became involved where the sub prefect issued a sub prefectural order banning farming and grazing around catchment areas.

  • Grazers intruding in the catchment areas

A minor challenge encountered was that several grazers would cut the fence to let their cows graze within the catchment area. In response to this, a fine was instituted by the Sub Divisional Officer on anybody caught carrying out any activity around the catchments.


In October, a final evaluation of the project was carried out. The three catchments in Balkumbat, Bali Gansin and Bali Gashu were protected and were the main source of portable drinking water within the communities. The construction of the fence, planting of water friendly trees and prohibition of grazing and farming activities created a shade that covered the soil, essentially reducing the evapo-transpiration. The trees planted were water-friendly trees that in the long-term would provide enough shade and help increase the water table thus ensuring an all year round availability of portable drinking water within the communities. The fencing and the prohibition of farming and grazing reduced the amount of chemicals (insecticides and fungicides) as well as animal faeces and urine getting into the streams. With the prohibition of those activities, the water is clean and the community members can now boast of quality drinking water throughout the entire year. Furthermore, the community were able to access this clean water more easily.

This project also assisted in the overall health of the community. In 2011 there were approximately 50 people admitted for water borne diseases at the Balikumbat District Hospital. However, by the end of 2012 this reduced to only 21 people suffering from water borne diseases, 15 admitted for diarrhoea, 10 suffering from dysentery and 6 from Typhoid.

Overall, this project undoubtedly improved the general access to safe and clean drinking water as well as improving the overall community of the health. Although there were land ownership issues, the rule of law and strict local governance of the water catchment areas has enabled communities of Balkumbat, Bali Gansin and Bali Gashu to prosper and improve their long-term future.

Tubah Upland Forest 2013

Many international environmental conservation organizations have focused on the Tubah Upland Forests of Cameroon, particularly focused on raising awareness about the forest exploitation and the detrimental impacts it has on the diverse habitats of animals such as the Nigerian Cameroon Chimpanzee.

In 2013, CAEPA Cameroon liaised with farmers, grazers, hunters and students to engage about forest exploitation and the importance of conservation and restoration. CAEPA Cameroon aimed to improve, enhance and raise awareness about the conservation status of threatened trees for chimpanzee food and habitation within the Tubah Upland Forest.

The Tree Reforestation/ Conservation Project

CAEPA Cameroon conducted training workshops on tree identification, reforestation techniques and nursery establishment on the 15th July – 21st July 2013. CAEPA Cameroon engaged with the communities surrounding the Tubah Upland Forest about issues such as forest exploitation to conserve and restore threatened tree species for chimpanzee food and habitation.

The project was launched with 96 people in attendance. This included men and women from administration, government, community leadership authorities, hunters, grazers and student communities. During the launch, stakeholders were assigned roles and responsibilities with CAEPA Cameroon raising the awareness on the importance to protect the forest and its diverse species, particularly the Nigerian Cameroon Chimpanzee.

The program continued with a 4-day workshop on tree identification, nursery establishment and reforestation techniques with a total of 52 people receiving training.

The Forest Restoration Outcomes

A permanent nursery was established with the involvement of 58 community members. In total, 10,000 poly pots were filled with 6,000 trees including species such as Myysopsis, Beshemidia, Vocanga, Vitex, Cordia and Ficus. Workshop participants and community members also planted 5,000 trees during the demonstration on reforestation techniques in degraded patches linking a corridor between the Fitsen and Kubu patches.

The Training/ Educational Outcomes

In addition to the forestry restoration achievements, CAEPA Cameroon also conducted training sessions teaching the participants about:

  • The 1974 Land Tenure Ordinance and the 1994 Forestry and Wildlife laws
  • The FAO definition of a forest and tree identification based on their habitat, leaves, flowers, fruits and exudates.
  • Nursery establishment and the different phases of establishing a nursery – purpose of the nursery, location, establishing a permanent water source and soil type.
  • Reforestation techniques
  • Afforestation techniques and the variety of ways it could be achieved such as natural regeneration and artificial propagation
  • Direct sowing and planting techniques

The Policy Outcomes

There were several policy initiatives initiated by multi-party stakeholders to further develop this knowledge into sustainable change.

Many stakeholders came together for the first time to engage with the issues of forest exploitation and protecting the chimpanzee’s habitats. Users demanded the forest should be mapped and buffer zones established for the protection of the environment and animals. They also demanded that law enforcement should be enhanced to reduce pressure on the forest and the local community maintains their awareness of Cameroon wildlife law, land ordinances and pastoral code.

Furthermore, there were 4 focused group dialogues conducted with farmers and grazers in KedjomKeku, KedjomKitinguh, Bambui and Finge which explored strategies into reducing the exploitation of the forest as well as looking at improving farming techniques and trainings.




CAEPA Cameroon’s HIV/ AIDS community outreach project

The Community Agriculture and Environmental Protection Association Cameroon (CAEPA Cameroon) is a non-governmental organisation based in Cameroon dedicated to enhancing community health, agriculture and environmental protection within Cameroonian communities. CAEPA Cameroon engage with the communities on important issues through projects aimed at identifying community challenges, researching and proposing sustainable long-term policy recommendations that engage the local community.

Background of Project

In 2012, CAEPA Cameroon launched an HIV/ AIDS outreach community project dedicated to carrying out HIV counselling and testing, health education, resources and improving overall access to information on HIV/ AIDS. According to the Cameroon National Health survey (2004), Cameroon has an HIV prevalence of 5.5% with the North West region having a prevalence of 8.7% that considerably exceeds the national prevalence average. Within the North West region of Cameroon, the current Mbororo population is estimated to be roughly 80,000 of a total 1,500,000. The Mbororo population is located at the peripheries of the region and thus resulted in reduced access to government services while their relative population dispersion has further caused exclusion from other communities within the region.

Historically, the Mbororo population has experienced under-representation and marginalisation within all branches of local government and administration (except livestock) while their traditional leaders are viewed as subordinate to ‘native chiefs’. Furthermore, a language barrier and education gap constantly alienates the Mbororo population. These existing gaps have resulted in a marginalisation and isolation of the Mbororo people as well as a sense of ‘otherness’ within the form of a code of conduct known as ‘pulaaku’.

Within the Mbororo population, Mbororo women in particular have low rates of literacy implicating their autonomy, family health and budget management. Furthermore, Mbororo women tend to have reduced social mobility in comparison to men on whom they are largely economically dependent. While this reality has relates to the political economy of the North West region, the onset of Islamisation amongst Mbororo communities has resulted in a sedentary lifestyle further restricting the role of women regarding their engagement in the broader social/ political/ economic life.

CAEPA Cameroon with the support of the African Women Development Fund initiated the HIV/ AIDS outreach project in order to address the existing social services and education gap within the Mbororo population. By doing so, CAEPA Cameroon invested within the local community to equip community members with knowledge and skills to create positive change for future generations.

The HIV/ AIDS Community Outreach Project

CAEPA Cameroon conducted the HIV/ AIDS community outreach project in an effort to close the gap between the Mbororo and local communities. Through this outreach project, CAEPA Cameroon conducted free voluntary counselling, testing for HIV/ AIDS, delivered education sessions, demonstrated the use of male and female condoms and distributed resources (e.g. condoms) to the Mbororo community while launching a public education campaign through local radio stations.

CAEPA Cameroon successfully collaborated with local peer educators to connect with Mbororo women group leaders as well as visited pastoralist settlements. They engaged with local radio stations (Abakwa FM radio and The Cameroon Radio Television) to sensitise the Mbororo pastoralists and inform them about upcoming screening and education talks conducted by the local peer educators which occurred from the 25th November until the 1st of December, 2012.

Challenges to Cameroon – Stigma and Discrimination

CAEPA Cameroon reported that the main challenge was engaging young girls and women about sex and demonstrating the use of the condom, as sex is largely a taboo topic within their community. Many women were willing to receive the condoms, however, were ashamed of what others will think of them. Furthermore, most of them did not want to get tested for fear of the unknown.

According to IRIN News, people living with HIV/ AIDS in Cameroon continue to suffer widespread stigma within society extending into everyday challenges such as obtaining bank loans, loss of jobs and suffering mistreatment at hospitals. In 2014, Cameroon’s national average prevalence for HIV/ AIDS was 4.5%, however, there are still many widespread myths and discrimination associated with the disease that can only be reduced through education.

Overcoming Stigma and the Future of Cameroon

Cameroonians with HIV/ AIDS continue to face stigma within society. This is notably exacerbated through a wide gap within social services and education for communities such as Mbororo pastoralists. CAEPA Cameroon’s efforts to bridge these gaps for vulnerable populations through education and awareness raising continue to pave the future for Cameroon. Through education and open engagement with difficult taboo issues, non-governmental organisations such as CAEPA Cameroon continue to equip community members with knowledge and skills to promote positive change for the betterment of life for Cameroonians.




Organisation overview

CAEPA began in 2009 as a private non-profit organisation dedicated to tackling poverty in Cameroon by means of improving the knowledge and utilization of both agriculture and the environment, particularly amongst women and girls. CAEPA recognises that the environment is the only source of livelihood for Cameroonian citizens – over 80% of the population depend on agriculture for survival. Livestock and crop production, health facilities, health of community members and the welfare of school children all would suffer without the necessary skills and principles that an improved agriculture industry provides. Without information technology and without fulfilling socio-economic goals of the marginalised, outreach is limited. CAEPA exists to bridge this gap, whilst empowering members of the community with the ability and skill to create positive change, with agriculturally based, environmentally friendly objectives.

CAEPA mainly works with farmers to aid their production and productivity. CAEPA’s services involve working with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and farmers, with successes in the following areas: organisation and capacity building in conservation areas, improved tree nursery and planting techniques, innovative food grain storage methods, more natural crop protection, better beekeeping, and improved marketing techniques in the North West Region of Cameroon. Furthermore, 50farming groups in Balikumbat Subdivision have benefited from training on alternative livelihood activities – an increase of over 10,000 plantlets has been witnessed.

Project Background

Recent focus has been shifted to the Women in the Balikumbat Subdivision area. As a marginalised group with low skillsets and little access to other means of income, poverty is often both ubiquitous and endless. Climate change coupled with livestock density has ravaged land and food security is low; the ecosystem no longer fulfils its purpose of providing environmental services like clean water provision. With families at the heart of community, and women at the heart of providing the nutrition needed by each family, this project has had immeasurable levels of both present and future success.

Project Summary

Thanks to the support of the African Women’s Development Fund (AWDF), in September 2013, CAEPA was able to introduce their latest project, supporting women and girls in Balikumbat Subdivision in combating soil fertility deterioration, and mitigating the impact of climate change through agro-forestry for crop production. This support is crucial to train women and girls in agro-cultural roles, teaching them the techniques of nursery creation, seed collection, storage, pre-treatment and agro-forestry systems. By the project’s close in August 2014, successes were made in enhancing both the community awareness and conservation education in schools on climate change adaption and mitigation. This remodelled syllabus made for an invaluable investment in the future prosperity of the agriculture industry and thus, the surrounding local communities of Balikumbat. Other notable improvements were made in the improvement in rates of the techniques of agro-forestry for soil conservation, and from the increased nutrient intake via women and girls now planting fruit trees – both in the Balikumbat subdivision.

Notable Success Stories:

CAEPA successfully trained 522 rural women farmers from the Balikumbat Subdivision and the surrounding areas in nursery creation, seed collection and storage, pre-treatment and in development of agro-forestry systems, allowing them to independently check protective and essential measures such as pollution and soil erosion. An additional 3251 trees of 4 different species were introduced in previously degraded land, spanning an area of 40 hectares.

CAEPA were also able to reach out and develop the education system of the Balikumbat Subdivision; 6 schools, totaling 286 pupils of which the majority consists of girls, now benefit from newly introduced environmental clubs. Not only are the students now better positioned to understand and approach environmental issues as a result of these clubs, but 500 new trees have also been planted, which suggests the future progression into tree rehabilitation and environmentally-conscious upkeep.

Other successes include the implementation of 5 tree nurseries per village, covering all fice villages of the Balikumbat Subdivision. Furthermore, essential farming equipment has been provided to 20 women oriented farming groups – each group was endowed with at least a wheelbarrow, a sprayer, 10 hoes and various crop seeds. Women involved with the project voiced the many benefits they found, especially in the creation of nurseries and the care of seeds, culminating in an increase in production overall. This was notable in the production of maize – production soared by 1 tonne, from a previous 1.5 to 2.5 tonnes per hectare.

However, the work is ongoing, which is why CAEPA needs your support!

Future Prospects:

Owing to the kindness of AWDF, whilst CAEPA has already been able to make an invaluable difference to the livelihoods of women and communities alike in the Balikumbat Subdivision, there is still a lot more to achieve. Women still, face much marginalization and lack human rights parity compared with men; women typically have limited economic prospects, poorer health and lack ownership of land, which then contributes to the difficulty they face in gaining inheritance. However, CAEPA recognizes the huge role and impact women have on the agriculture industry, and so they plan to work tirelessly for the empowerment of women, by extending control of land to them.